Saturday, August 31, 2019
Social work has been one of the most important pillars for the growth of human society. The role played by social workers cannot be downplayed as it is vital for human growth and development.Like in any other professional, human service work is founded on some important principles which guide them in their work. Most important of these principles are our attitude and values, skills, and our knowledge. Human help work is diverse in its expectation and therefore the individual strength and weaknesses in these pillars leads to specialization in one of its diverse areas.Therefore understanding our strengths and weaknesses in attitudes and values, skills and knowledge is important to help us understand the area that we can service successfully. This paper will review different strengths and weaknesses in these pillars and come up with strategies to cope with any weaknesses.Strengths and weaknesses of attitude and valuesPatience is an important virtue in human help work. It is not always t hings will go as expected. We might want change but they may be coming very slow. We make two steps ahead but our clients take us three steps backward.Ã The old adage goes patience pays, and indeed it is true.Ã One of my strength with patience is that at the end we achieve what we want though at slow pace. However I find it difficult to wait for the long time that this solution will take. I always become frustrated when I canÃ¢â¬â¢t achieve what I want. To overcome this weakness, I always engage in other kind of activities like raisin funds to get a break out of the routine. (Brown, 2004)I have a great weakness when it comes to empathy. In many situation I have found it difficult to put myself in someone else situation not matter what I want. I have realized that empathy is a long path I trend daily with no destination.Ã I always try to be sensitive to other peoples situation and try to do the best I can to help them.Self awareness is a great virtue that guides me in my w ork. In most situations I have been caught in situation where I am supporting what I donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in.Ã However self awareness has helped me to trend emotional laden topics like rape and suicide with ease. It has helped me to grant individual freedom to make choice. I always try to do the best I can to assess a situation before I support or oppose it.In most situations I have found out that am not sure of what will happen in any situation.Ã Social work is complex and dealing with special groups is very demanding. No one is sure of the formula to use to get the desired results. Although I am prepared for any eventualities, I always have fear of negative results. I try to overcome this weakness by developing a positive mind that everything will go as expected.The aim of any social work is to bring a change through capacity building. This factor helps social workers to direct their energy towards areas which empower their clients to lift them from their present situation. However I am always faced by frustration when clients donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand where they are going and what they want. To overcome this I talk with the clients on what they want and together we discuss how to go about it.Openness mindedness helps social workers to tap more knowledge from others. I have always listened to others to gain more knowledge. I always open my mind to receive more information from other people. However I have a problem towards gender equity and stereotypes that I always side with women.I have decided to attend a course of gender in order to get more insight on this issue and change my pattern of thinking on men and there relationship to women. Lastly when everything weighs on my shoulder, I find sharing light moments with my clients as one of the most influential thing. This helps me to relax and at the same time understand them.Strengths and weaknesses in skillsLike in any other profession, skills are very vital for any social worker. A social worker needs different skills depending on the situation at and. Active listening is important as it helps to understand the situation and get the emotion surrounding the words. A careful scrutiny of individual in their surrounding will tell whether they are in deed saying what they mean or not.These are two important skills that I have applied in my social work to understand my clients well. However I have a weakness in listening to others as I tend to get very emotional. In such situation I try my best to reserve my words as I listen to others or I talk to them later when my emotion subsides. Getting as much information about the clients one can is also important to understand them and their behavior.In order to raise my skills I always try to attend conferences that are about social work from where I can learn diverse skills on human relations. In situation where I canÃ¢â¬â¢t get enough information about the clients, I search more on their background by visiting their homes. However it is e ven hard to get more information from their homes especially when parents are not cooperative. (Doe, 1998)Sharing information with other social worker has helped me to gain more knowledge about the clients. This helps to write an evaluation of every client and understand them well. Keeping the records creates continuity for the social worker who will take over. In my work, I have always done my best to build relationship with the clients in order to help them however some like teenager have emotions that break every relationship built over time.However I try to understand them and build from a collapsing relationship to form a cohesive bond.Ã When it comes to dealing with clients, it is difficult to negotiate for their contracts or to construct action plans for them. Something they ought to be left to carry out their own duties the way they want. But mutual guidance especially for teenagers is important to give them direction. One of my weakness in this area is that I have tried micromanagement in many cases having a hand in every thing client are doing.While this helps things to roll out as planned, it is seen as authoritarian. To avert this I have at times delegated my roles to others who can handle it effectively.Ã To ensure the plan is rolling out as expected monitoring and evaluation is needed to elicit a feedback.Ã Since am not competent in this area, I would rather hire a professional who can provide unbiased feedback and propose improvements to be made. (Taylor, 1999)
Friday, August 30, 2019
In the short essay Ã¢â¬Å"In Praise of MarginsÃ¢â¬ Ian Frazier defines marginal people, places, or activities as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ the ones that donÃ¢â¬â¢t quite work outÃ¢â¬ (58 Frazier) since they are insufficient to meet the standards of the economic world. However, Frazier shows he values marginal activities and places because they allow people to be themselves without the worry and judgment. For Frazier and his friends, they viewed Ã¢â¬Å"The woodsÃ¢â¬ (56 Frazier) as their place of margin Often times society deems marginal behavior to be unbeneficial, but Frazier states Ã¢â¬Å"..marginal behavior can be the most important kind.Ã¢â¬ (58 Frazier) because every purpose-filled activity starts off as a margin. Nonetheless, it is crucial for marginal things to exist as they provide many benefits and play an important role in the world we live in today. Living in a society where we are constantly being told what to do , marginal activities are necessary because they can allow oneself to discover what oneÃ¢â¬â¢s true passion is without any other influences. For example, in Annie DillardÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Hitting Pay DirtÃ¢â¬ she describes the time she received a microscope kit, as a Christmas present, which she played with constantly in her basement. In the beginning, Dillard is unable to use her microscope properly, but ultimately succeeds as she sees an amoeba. Excited about what she had discovered, she immediately runs upstairs to show her parents; however, both of her parents are uninterested to what had seemed like Ã¢â¬Å"..a chance of a lifetime.Ã¢â¬ (95 Dillard) to Dillard. As a result, she then begins to realize that every individual has their own pursuits and Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦that you do what you do out of your private passion for the thing itself.Ã¢â¬ (95 Dillard). Dillard explains that Ã¢â¬ [Her] days and nights were [her] own to plan and fill.Ã¢â¬ (96 Dillard) and her passions were her own and not her parents. In a world where everything is constantly evolving and expanding , margins are much needed as they are the sole reason that helps the world continue to progress. Frazier states that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ marginal behavior can be the most important kind.Ã¢â¬ (Frazier 58) because it allows one to attempt new and different concepts without the needed approval of anyone else. In many cases, ideas start off as Ã¢â¬Å"marginalÃ¢â¬ theories, but later on can beÃ acknowledged as something greater. Especially in a society where we demand things frequently, we often expect immediate results, thus making marginality difficult to understand for many. For instance, Frazier uses the first person who decided to ride down a mountain trail with his bicycle as an example of someone who started off thinking he was doing a Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦decidedly marginal thing.Ã¢â¬ (58 Frazier). However, this mountain bikerÃ¢â¬â¢s mere Ã¢â¬Å"marginalÃ¢â¬ idea has become a widely known sport across the nation. Ultimately, without marginal activity the world would be unable to grow; margins are extremely important as they keep life exciting and new. In the midst of everyday busy life, one is in need of marginal things every once in a while for the purpose of sanity. Marginal things essentially allow one to relieve stress by escaping the continuous demands of society, thus enabling many to obtain a peaceful state of mind. Frazier defines marginal activities as a Ã¢â¬Å"higher sort of un-purposeÃ¢â¬ (57 Frazier) as marginal activities can be viewed as useless, and yet can mean so much to a each different individual. For example, Frazier and his friends find their marginal place in Ã¢â¬Å"The woodsÃ¢â¬ (56 Frazier) since it was a location they were able to do senseless activities just for the sake of it. The woods was almost like a sanctuary to Frazier; it was a place where he was able to escape from the judgments of the outside world and the pressure of impressing anyone else. In essence, taking a break from the daily norm with marginal things prevents individuals from going insane. Altogether, according to Frazier, Ã¢â¬Å"marginalÃ¢â¬ places and activities should be valued as they can provide numerous benefits to not only society, but to oneself. Marginal things allow many to truly find what their passion lies in, since marginal activities are not forced upon by any other influences. In addition, marginal behavior essentially keeps our world spinning as it brings new ideas that seem to have no purpose, but later on can bring something great. Lastly, often times, one is blinded by the mentality that everything one does must have a purpose, therefore disabling one to realize the importance of marginal things as they keep us at peace. All in all, marginal things may seem worthless, but the only reason as to why they might be viewed in that sense is because of the perspective society views marginalÃ activities.
Introduction Kitchen Best Appliance Company must immediately address the ethical, cultural, legal and poor business practices in order for the company to remain in business. If the company continues to turn a blind eye to such behaviors as bribes, nepotism, illegal behavior and reckless endangerment to customer the company will only continue to find itself in a position that leaves it vulnerable to law suits, criminal charges, fines and incarceration of personnel. The case study provides a clear picture of what can happen to company that does not communicate, enforces and support policies and procedures established to have a competitive, compliant, safe and ethical workplace. Analysis The major social, ethical and legal challenges that Kitchen Best and other small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) face doing cross border business will be determined below. Social challenges are most easily identified in cultural differences among regions. For instance language barriers can create social challenges as well as differences in cultural beliefs and behaviors. Businesses must be prepared to face language differences by having staff available that can speak and write in languages other than their native tongue. Also the companies must be prepared to investigate and study the cultural differences for the countries that they wish to conduct business with. This is not only to determine if the designated area is a good place to conduct business, but also to acquire the necessary knowledge needed to successfully conduct business. Ethical challenges are even more difficult for companies when dealing with two different sets of ethical standards, which usually are influenced by cultural standards. It is fully possible that in business dealings that a company has opposing ethical standards to operate within the two countries. In some cultures such activities as bribes, kickbacks, and nepotism areÃ encouraged whereas other countries frown upon such practices. This is where research plays an important role for companies interested in expanding their business globally. Legal challenges just like ethical and social challenges have a major impact of SMEs who conduct cross border business. There are many forms of governments as well as numerous forms of legal systems that vary among countries. While diversity is accepted, diversity can make business interaction difficult as well as legally impossible. An example of legal challenges can be seen in tax regulation, employee pay regulations, employee working condition regulations, safety regulations and environmental impact regulations. If a SME is found in violation of a particular law or regulation it could face extreme penalties as well as sanctions from agencies as the World Trade Organization. Kitchen Best has long since participated in offering entertainment and kickbacks to potential clients and business partners, which upper management has turned a blind eye to. Such actions have led Kitchen Best to be susceptible to legal risks. China, Macao and Hong Kong have active laws against such actions which are punishable by imprisonment and fines. Since Kitchen Best employees participated in such actions, with the knowledge of upper management, in both jurisdictions the company is liable along with the employees. The management and overall governance system of Kitchen Best is below par. While the list of shortcomings is long the company can improve the situation by changing the method in which it operates and creating effective policies. One of the biggest shortcomings of management is the practice of turning a blind eye to corruption and inappropriate business practices. By turning a blind eye to such behaviors and activities management is essentially condoning the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. This is obviously a shortcoming that has led Kitchen Best management to knowingly participate in unethical behavior such as bribes and kickbacks. Along with the practice of turning a blind eye to the previous mentioned behaviors and activities management also exhibited a shortcoming by not leading by example. In addition management did notÃ create, maintain and enforce policies and procedures for employees to follow. This could have prevented the shortcoming of non-governance of competitive practices a nd safety regulations as in the case of Haus de Metro. Kitchen Best must utilize mechanisms such as effective compliance programs, risk assessments, accessible access of for employees to code of conduct and compliance policies and procedures. As well as the mechanisms mentioned above Kitchen Best must also use continual training for all staff including management on policies, procedures and current legislation. Use of weekly meetings and communication tools such as video conferencing will enable the company to improve communication between all facets of the company. Technology overall will enhance the job performance of employees, but can also be used to create checks and balances within the company. For instance a system of web based approval could be used for the payment of invoices that would allow the company to approve of deny any invoices including those for entertainment. With the advancement of technology companies have the ability to be Ã¢â¬Å"big brotherÃ¢â¬ while also enhancing employee performance. Henry Chan can learn a lot from the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (U.S. FCPA) or the U.K. Bribery Act. Chan can see the penalties that have been established for corrupted behavior as well as ways to prevent such actions. Since both are from Western democracies Chan can compare to corruption acts from China. This will enable Chan to view a variety of guidelines that will assist in creating his own policies and procedures for Kitchen Best. Another advantage to Chan is that he will be better prepared for international business and the cultures of in which they exists. The problems at Kitchen Best are related to Horatio Sze and Ma Luk. Through the years the company has made missteps in regards to managing staff. Without checks and balances or enforcements of policies staff had free reign with no consequences. Without direct supervision or accountability the management staff allowed the behavior to occur. The company allowed the inappropriate behavior of Sze and Luk by turning a blind eye to their actions. If the company had taken direct action such as disciplinary actionsÃ or even termination of either employee when their indiscretions became apparent the problems would have been prevented. Top managers are responsible when corruption is afoot, especially when top management has knowledge of the corruption. It is the responsibility of top managers to be aware of what is happening within their business. There is also a necessity for top managers to actively participate in business operations and to investigate any alleged corruptions within the company. In the case of Kitchen Best top management ignored allegations of corruptions. Another responsibility of top management is to take and creative preventative measures against corruption. It is imperative that SMEs practice ethical management locally and internationally. In order for global business to expand along with the actual companies ethical management must be enforced. Ethical management not only assists in creating a fair and competitive business atmosphere, but it also enables progressive business relations with countries. Henry Chan can enhance his role in this regard by participating and enforcing ethical business practices. He can also benefit from exposure to companies similar to Honghua who have transitioned from an unethical management to an ethical management system. When faced with local expectations of Ã¢â¬Å"payoffsÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"referral moneyÃ¢â¬ staff should be advised to approach top management. Staff should consult policies and procedures before taking any action, but in this case the seriousness of the situation requires managementÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Once management is notified of the situation the employee should then work with management to determine the best course of actions. It must also be stated that if the company has researched the business atmosphere the expectations of Ã¢â¬Å"payoffsÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"referral moneyÃ¢â¬ should not come as a surprise. Therefore the company can be prepared when the situation arises and will not have to make a snap decision. Guidance can be sought through numerous channels that include literature, educational classes, expert knowledge, legislation and other professionals. All of the resources could provide guide or research on business managementÃ and international business. The internet could also be utilized for information regarding business policies, procedures and desired business behaviors locally and internationally. The World Trade Organization is also a good resources as well as looking at such education facilities as Harvard School of Business. Both previously mentioned offer limitless information via their websites. There are specific steps and methods that Henry Chan can use to help build Kitchen BestÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate culture for the long term benefit of the company. As mentioned before the creation, maintaining and implementation of policies and procedures that include compliance program. When creating and updating the policies and procedures of the company Henry Chan should consult legal counsel as well as other professionals who can provide expert knowledge. Henry Chan himself needs to improve his management skills as well as his ability to interact within different cultures. Another step to improve corporate culture is to remove employees that previously participated in unethical behavior. It is imperative that management lead by example and eliminate those who do not wish to contribute to a positive corporate culture. By creating a culture of compliance the company can successfully perform in a positive manner. This can also be accomplished by providing training to employees, continuing to guide employees in the proper way in business processes, having incentives for employees to reward positive acts and disciplinary measures for non-compliance to policies and procedures. Each of the steps mentioned above will resolve the issues of bribery, kickbacks, safety violations and uncompetitive contracting awarding. Not only will the steps above stop the current issues of Kitchen Best, but also establish preventative measures against such behaviors. Conclusion Henry Chan and Kitchen Best can resolve their current business issues and improve the business operations of the company. While the Chan familyÃ¢â¬â¢s intentions were to create and maintain a company their lackluster attitude towards corruption has made the company liable. With the suggestions provided in this analysis Kitchen BestÃ¢â¬â¢s business operations can improve and eliminate the corruption within the company. The scope of improvements necessary for Kitchen Best is vast, which will take a significant amount ofÃ time that will in the end prove worth wild. References DRS: Daniels, J. D., Radebaugh, L. H. & Sullivan, D. P. International business. (14th ed.) U. S. Dept. of Justice (2012, November). A resource guide to the U. S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. http://www.justice.gov/criminal/fraud/fcpa/guide.pdf Goo, S. & Loo, G. (2011). Kitchen Best: Ethics when doing cross-boundary business in Southern China (Product No. HKU948-PDF-ENG). Retrieved from http://hbsp.harvard.edu
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Choose your own - Coursework Example People moving up and down and deliveries taking place, that would later work against us. The assignment given to us humiliated my comrade, Benson, and he questioned the mission as we boarded the cargo ship. I was very attentive and picked every step since I could be cannon-folder in no time. It was difficult making my way out into the yard using the walls for cover. I had lost all hope and my dignity was at an all-time low. Benson had talked, complained and was tired; it was time for him to see things develop without commenting or uttering any word. It was time to move out and carry our heavy guns on our shoulders. This is an experience that I could not believe to be going through in real life. The gun-strap was heavy, but I was optimistic about getting relieved once I started using it eventually. From my standpoint, I could see two guards standing at ease under a swathe of lamplight, and they were very tired calling for a reprieve on deaf ears. Sadly, these soldiers dropped down and cried as they hit the floor. I developed sympathetic feelings towards them and concluded they did so because of humanity. I was traumatized by the activities going on at the port and knew that one day, I would be dead, and my family back home will never hear any more from me. My ears were filled with the noise and sounds of the port; I become paranoid forcing me to hide behind a huge iron door for my security. I started feeling lonely since I could no longer see Benson, the only person I banked on for my strength and survival. The death of our people and opponents was rising and the developments thrilled me. The initiation of weapons of mass destruction was a loss to humanity since people were claiming their fellow human beings. Ã¢â¬Å"What a terrible day,Ã¢â¬ I cast the day because I never expected to see the entire taking place. It was frightening, and I was in solidarity with my fellow men. Although I had my gun with me, a gun given without my consent, it was impossible using it
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Prejudice Based on Skin Color - Dissertation Example However, after the expression of the skin color through genetics, external factors, for example, ultra-violet rays from the sun may change the skin color away from its initial genetic expression. Distance from the equator is also another external factor that affects the skin color. Even though the non-genetic factors have an effect on the skin color, it is important to note that the effect of genes overrides them all (Kontopoulou and Marketos). This is because the expression caused by the gene is irreversible as compared to that on non-genetic factors. The light skin has always been favored over the dark skin across the various human cultures throughout history. This is because light skin has always been associated with beauty, intelligence and grace while the dark skin has always been considered to be inferior, uncivilized and subordinate (Dovidio and Gaertner). This view was later entrenched in the general psyche by the unfortunate tragedies of slavery and colonialism of the dark-s kinned people by the light skinned people throughout the work in the 19th and 20th centuries. This legacy has perpetuated the view of the superiority of the light skin over the dark skin into the modern times. During slavery era, the lighter skinned black slaves were favored by their masters over their darker skinned counterparts because they were perceived to be more intelligent, co-operative and beautiful as contrasted with darker skinned slaves who were considered ugly, uncivilized and crude (Sulem et al.).
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
The Merits of DSU system in WTO - Essay Example Installation of the DSU by WTO has harmonized the manner in which WTO members engage in international trade. Dispute resolution serves as the central pillar upon which WTO functions, thereby allowing member countries to coexist and participate in an efficiently and effectively regulated international trade2. Given the fact that disputes are expected to arise due one reason or another in the process of trade between WTO members, investigations become vital to conduct in order to resolve the underlying dispute. The dispute resolution system is not forceful to any member, as the system is designed to resolve disputes without necessarily damaging state or intergovernmental relations. In the view that the DSU system does not forcefully implement investigations on members upon a dispute, the system minimizes or alleviates altogether the likelihood of being used to instigate dispute proceedings. The DSU system allows either party in the underlying dispute to waiver its claims at any step of the proceedings3. In so doing, it provides a diversified ground upon which conflicts and disputes between trade partners can be resolved. The system does not by any chance curtail the rights and freedoms of any WTO member. DSU is indiscriminately enforced for the benefit of all WTO members. The operations of DSU apply to all members, meaning that WTO provisions are uniformly binding to both developing and developed member countries4. In this respect, the primary interests, activities, and roles of WTO are reflected by the DSU system. WTO serves as an intergovernmental organization across the globe, an aspect that the DSU essentially captures. As a result, the DSU system is tailored towards promoting functional relations and improved international trade all over the world. The DSU system does not observe a common law system, meaning that it is not characterized by binding precedents5. Consequently, this implies that the DSU system exhibits no stare decisis aspects in
Monday, August 26, 2019
How the Law of England and Wales Is Made Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words
How the Law of England and Wales Is Made - Essay Example The paper tells that businesses in Wales and England have a different form of ownership that depends on the required level of control and the availability of funds. The variation in the form of ownership determines the rules suitable for a particular business according to the legal system of the countries. The UK parliament is responsible for the creation of laws that govern Wales and England. The parliament is made up of the House of Commons, House of Lords, and the Monarch. The processor creating laws starts with the creation of a bill that has to pass or to be approved by the parliament. Either the bills can be public (presented by government ministers) or private (presented the backbench MPs). English laws can also be created from government policies that have to go through similar approval from the legislature. The bills have to go through first and second readings in the house before being handed to the committee for further debate. From the committee stage, the bill is present ed to the house as a report before it goes through the third reading. After passing through the third readings successful bills proceed to the House of Lords for approval. Finally, the bill has to go through the Royal Assent for it to be adopted as a law. The laws made by the legislature are general laws that govern the countries, however; there are specific laws that are important to the corporate and business world and this fall into the category of business and corporate laws. Creating of business laws is a complex process that requires combined efforts from the business sector and the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s instruction through the judicial system.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Civil Liberties, Habeas Corpus, and the War on Terror - Essay Example The work that follows discusses the right of habeas corpus in the war on terror and its historical evolution. Historical Evolution of habeas corpus According to English tradition, habeas corpus fought for liberty of citizens after English land owners forced it on King John in their constitutional document named Magna Charta (Halliday, 2010). The constitutional document declared that no seizure, imprisonment, exile or injury shall occur on anyone except by lawful judgment by the law of the land. In other words everyone had a right to freedom unless they pass through due law process. The common-law courts became the first to use habeas corpus in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries competing with feudal courts, which local land owners controlled (King & Hoffmann, 2011:). These feudal courts had no consistency in their procedures, and the common-law courts began issuing orders demanding release of prisoners in the feudal courts. According to the U.S tradition, Americans believed habe as corpus as a weapon used to defend an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s liberty, and planned to protect it from suspension in times of peace through inclusion of a provision in Article I of their constitution (King & Hoffmann, 2011:). ... ?s war against terrorism, habeas corpus checks abuse of government power on alleged terrorists or suspected aliens or criminals to ensure protection of individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ liberty. Examples from U.S. history of the suspension of habeas corpus and their applicability to the present There are several examples of suspension of habeas corpus in the United States history, which are in application at present. An example of habeas corpus suspension is during the reign of Abraham Lincoln. Although authorizing order of the suspension took place in the year 1861, the suspension took place in March 1863 (Dueholm, 2008). The orders given stated that, first, throughout the war period, any person committing a disloyal practice or giving aid to rebels against the U.S authority would be liable to punishment by military commission or courts martial. Secondly, the orders stated that the suspension of habeas corpus was in respect to all persons arrested in places confined by military commission or auth ority. As Article I in the U. S constitution stated, the government had authority to suspend the writ of habeas corpus incase there is risk of security, and when the public safety requires it. Lincoln got authority to suspend habeas corpus after Congress passed an act, two years to the war (Dueholm, 2008). According to the article, the president had executive power vested in them, which gave authority to conduct any changes in the government. The suspension of habeas corpus still applies at present, as the president still has powers to execute changes in the government. Another example in U. S history is seen when Bush signed a law in October 2006 that suspended the rights of habeas corpus to persons whom United States considered an enemy in the war against terror (Longley, 2013). However, this
Saturday, August 24, 2019
US Ports and Cybersecurity - Research Paper Example Kevin Kelly1 (2011) asks this intriguing question, Ã¢â¬Å"What does technology want?Ã¢â¬ If certain aspects of the technium are preordained and certain aspects are contingent upon our choices, how do we know which are which? Systems theorist John Smart has suggested that we need a technological version of the Serenity Prayer.Ã¢â¬ The serenity prayer, written and popularized in the early 1930s by theologian Reinhold Niebuhr, asks God to help in changing the things which are difficult to change or Ã¢â¬Å"courage to change the things I can, and wisdom to know the difference.Ã¢â¬ 2 According to Kelly, Ã¢â¬Å"Technology was invented from the time we were bornÃ¢â¬ . But technology is under threat every second of the day. Individual files and organizational documents and secrets are under threat of losing with the click of a finger, if we are not careful. This essay is about the many problems of technology, specifically information technology (IT) infrastructures of US ports, and how it can survive amidst threats of viruses, worms, spams, malicious software and cyber criminality. Organizations must have installed technology and IT infrastructures in their systems, otherwise, they will lag behind in the stiff competition. Organizational information systems should also have anti-viruses and other necessary protection before they see themselves vulnerable to a new kind of attack, the virus attack. Ports are one of the busiest areas for businesses around the world. With an installed IT, tasks and activities are made easier. IT enables organizations to conduct multiple operations simultaneously, but the infrastructure must be secured because without s ecurity, viruses and the various risks will make the infrastructure a mess. Ports operate a network of businesses and firms, movement and distribution, processing and many activities, which must be applied and inputted to an effective software and IT. Function IT, as it is called in the literature, refers to information systems that help improve usersÃ¢â¬â¢ functions and productivity in performing individual tasks. This important feature includes applications like computer-aided design (CAD) software, spreadsheet, word processors, and other e-learning tools and systems. In a port where ships dock and load and unload cargoes, where countless activities happen every minute and every second of the day, computers and softwares are a normal phenomenon. In a workplace where engineers constantly introduce product innovations and people depend on coordinated programs of activities, ports should have effective computer infrastructures. But there are people with criminal minds who, second b y second, devise plans to penetrate on other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s computers, other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth, that they send viruses, worms, spam emails and malwares to the internet and destroy portsÃ¢â¬â¢ valued files. The role of the manager is significant to the attainment of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and objectives. Managers should have good and effective rapport with employees, but they have to understand what IT is and its role in the ever changing world of business. One of the important responsibilities of the manager is to manage the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s information system. New business opportunities involving IT and the different functions of business are coming at a fast pace.3 Security awareness Studies have found that about 90% of organizations face information security investigation almost annually.4 Organizations have made moves to improve their information management systems and
Friday, August 23, 2019
Close Reading - Essay Example IÃ¢â¬â¢m a FoolÃ¢â¬ may be claimed as a literary piece that thematically embodies the basic human nature which is governed by the love of real life rather than by the established standards of living. Through AndersonÃ¢â¬â¢s featured character who conveys his personal account of folly in a satirical manner of speech, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m a FoolÃ¢â¬ likely summons a critical reader to obtain a reverse comprehension of foolishness, or one that is understood in the light of the storytellerÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of fulfillment with his humble work. At the onset of the story, the narrator confesses times in the past when he felt that certain events made him feel like a fool as sitting in the grandstand and working as a swipe for one of two horses before he left hometown with Harry and Burt. Though a sad narrative voice is anticipated for the title of the story, the speaker seems to express no regrets on accepting his fate with the menial job despite the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s opposition. He even appears to inject humor on mentioning Ã¢â¬ËWhite HeadÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËniggerÃ¢â¬â¢ so that readers may observe perhaps a funny contrast in reference to Harry and Burt,
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Employee Relations in Contemporary Organisations - Essay Example The main impetus for employee relations is the need for participation in management and the encouragement of participation as a result of democracy (Blyton and Turnbull, 2004 p276). They state that Ã¢â¬Å"participation is by definition a higher-trust and positive-sum activity where the emphasis is placed on the shared resolution of issues to the mutual benefit and gain of those involvedÃ¢â¬ (Blyton and Turnbull, 2004 p276). This implies that participation is an appropriate means through which both employers and employees can resolve their differences. However, the idea of participation led to the creation of trade unions and the incorporation of trade unionist policies in workplaces (Blyton and Turnbull, 2004). Also, the inclusion of European social policies encouraged bargaining and collective participation. Evolution from the Old Unionism Boxall and Purcell (2003) identify that the old industrial relations of the early 20th century was about control and stability and gaining agr eements to keep the production system going and avoiding disruptive conflicts. These arrangements were not legally enforceable. However, the post-war era ushered in a new period where participation of employees in organizations was done through unions. These unions were representatives of employees through collective bargaining arrangements. Collective bargaining is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a process through which representation of employers and employee organizations act as joint creators of substantive and procedural rules regulating employmentÃ¢â¬ (Blyton and Turnbull, 2004 p226). In other words, these were situations where important and relevant issues between employers and employees were discussed. The most common 'substantive' issue is the demand for fairer wages. Also, it involved the utilization of a clearly laid down procedure or system whereby employees could assert their demands based on the market value of their collective supply of labor. Most businesses after 1950 had unio ns. The only exceptions were traditionalist organizations that hated unionism and sophisticated paternalists who had management policies which substituted for the unions' presence (Blyton and Turnbull, 2004 p303). However, towards the 21st century, employee relations evolved after the old system of tripartite negotiations collapsed. In the 1980s, trade unionism and collective bargaining fell because of three main things: 1. There was a reduction the proportion of employees covered by collective bargaining arrangements. 2. There was a growing tendency for those arrangements to be local rather than national and 3. The narrowing of the scope of collective bargaining. In 1984, 70% of employees were members of collective bargaining groups. However, in the 1980s, the structures of the trade unions were exposed because they were not capable of dealing with the economic restructuring (Blyton and Turnbull, 2004). In 1990, only 52% of workers were members of collective bargaining groups. By 1 998, this figure had fallen to 40%. Today, the main framework of employee relations include three main elements; science building, problem-solving, ethical systems(Kaufman, 2004 p42).
English Literature Essay Hannam University Department: English Language and Literature. Degree: Masters of English Language Literature. Title: The Kite Runner: The novel presents the story of a country and people in turmoil. An abridgment of a THESIS Presented to Professor Kim Ilgu, the Faculty of the Department of English Language Literature of the Hannam University in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters of English Language Literature. By Uttam Mallick Student ID: 20114012 An brief overview of Khaled Hosseini, The Kite RunnerÃ¢â¬âStories Views on education: Khaled Hosseini is an Afghan-born American novelist and physician. He is a citizen of the United States where he has lived since he was fifteen years old. Khaled Hosseini is the first Afghan-American writer to publish a work of fiction in English in the United States. The Kite Runner is HosseiniÃ¢â¬â¢s first novel, and his book has achieved a significant amount of success since its publication in 2003-now in its seventeenth printing with over 1. 4 million copies sold-and has repeatedly appeared on the New York Times Best Sellers List over the last three years. Even though bookstores and libraries have been inundated with literature about Afghanistan and Iraq, none appear to have achieved the same amount of recognition or success as The Kite Runner. Since the nineteenth century, critics have called into question the literary merits of sentimental fiction for its seemingly unskilled rhetoric and inauthentic sentiment. Although the aesthetic purpose of sentimental literature has been repeatedly trivialized by literary critics, sentimental imagery, language and themes have been effectively utilized by various authors in the past to critique controversial social, historical and political practices of the times, such as slavery in Harriet Beecher StoweÃ¢â¬â¢s Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin (1852), and continue to be effectively utilized by contemporary authors, such as perceptions of Afghanistan and its people in Khaled HosseiniÃ¢â¬â¢s The Kite Runner. To complete my final thesis, I will use books and reviews or published by scholarly journals as well as major and minor newspapers to analyze the popularity of the novel, including its literary strengths and weaknesses. I will try to use my own knowledge and criticism about the country and people in turmoil. Some scholarly articles on Afghanistan published shortly after 9/11 will be used to provide a social and historical context for HosseiniÃ¢â¬â¢s novel. Lastly, I will use both scholarly articles and books to explain the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"sentimentalityÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"emotional narratives,Ã¢â¬ and their cultural importance, which will help me further articulate my critical approach to HosseiniÃ¢â¬â¢s text. Source of Data: For the research must be my own idea with some paper secondary data will be used.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Synthesis of Cyclohexene from Cyclohexanol Experiment #1: Synthesis of Cyclohexene from Cyclohexanol Johanna Bernadette C. Halili Mr. John Ephraim Torres June 21, 2014 ABSTRACT The synthesis of cyclohexene from cyclohexanol is an example of elimination reaction. Cyclohexanol, a secondary unsaturated alcohol, undergoes dehydration reaction to form a good leaving group which is H20 because the OH group of an alcohol is a very strong base making it a poor leaving group. The reaction will then be followed by the obstruction of a hydrogen atom to form a carbon double bond or an alkene which in this case is cyclohexene. Cyclohexene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon which is very reactive due to its negative center (Ault, 1973; Williamson, 2013; Eagleson, 1994). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is an instrument which is used to separate gaseous substances and it functions as an analyzer for the compound. This instrument may be able to provide the molecular weight, formula and structure of an unknown compound. Synthesis was done via simple distillation since distillation gives a relatively pure yield (Karesek-Clement, 1988). Phosphoric acid was added to cyclohexano l in a round bottomed flask to have the dehydration reaction which would yield to the cyclohexene. It was then distilled and the group was able to get 3 ml of yield. The distillate was observed using the mass spectrometer and it showed that the yield had an 81.98 molecular weight which is very close to the theoretical molecular weight of cyclohexene which is 82. Fragments were also observed with the result obtained and some can be considered as impurities. The product was affirmed to be cyclohexene based from the results obtained from the mass spectra. We can say that the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a great tool in analyzing either an unknown or for comparative reasons of a compound since it gives accurate results. Also, it is recommended to analyze at once the product for it not to evaporate. INTRODUCTION Alcohols undergo elimination reaction in the presence of a strong acid to form an alkene. Strong acids such as Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) are used in the dehydration reaction of alcohols. The acid needs to protonate the Ã¢â¬âOH group because -OH is a strong base making it a poor leaving group. Once the Ã¢â¬âOH has been protonated to H20, it can leave and the nucleophile will obstruct a beta hydrogen to form a carbon double bond or an alkene (Williamson, 2013). An example of this reaction was observed in this experiment with the synthesis of cyclohexanol to cyclohexene via distillation and extraction. Cyclohexanol is a secondary saturated alcohol with boiling point of 100.16 celcius which undergoes elimination reaction to form cyclohexene product with respect to their interaction with the column (stationary phase) and the gas/helium (mobile phase). A mass spectrum may be able to give the following information: molecular weight, molecular formula and molecular structure of the substance (Ault, 1973).. The objectives of this experiment are to isolate cyclohexene from cyclohexanol through acid-catalyzed elimination of water and to be able to determine the identity of the distillate product through Gas Chromatography. II. METHODOLOGY In this experiment, Cyclohexanol was synthesized to cyclohexene via distillation and extraction. In a 50 ml round bottomed flask, 5.0 grams of cyclohexanol, 1 ml of 85% phosphoric acid and boiling chips were added. After the flask was swirled to mix the contents, it was attached to a fractionating column which was fitted with a distilling adapter, thermometer and a simple condenser. The flask was heated using an oil bath with boiling chips for 5 minutes. The distillation process was done until the residue reduced to 1 to 15 ml. The group was able to collect only 3 ml of distillate. The receiver was placed in an ice bath for the residue not to evaporate. The distillate in the receiver was then transferred to a separatory funnel. Furthermore, 5 ml of water was added and was stoppered and mixed through shaking. The lower aqueous layer was discarded while the upper organic layer was decanted to an Erlenmeyer flask. Enough amount of Anhydrous sodium sulfate were placed in the Erlenmeyer f lask to absorb water residues as it was swirled occasionally for 10 minutes. The contents of the Erlenmeyer flask was then transferred to a test tube and the next distillation process was not done since the yield of the distilled product was too few. The product was then analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry apparatus in the instrument room. III.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS For this experiment, the yield was analyzed using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry apparatus. The graph shows the relationship between the relative abundance (y-axis) to M/Z ratio (x-axis). The result of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the product can be seen in fig 1 at the last page, the parent ion or the molecular ion denoted by M+ has a value of Distillation helps in obtaining purer substances. Also, an advanced instrument such as the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry apparatus gives a very accurate result or molecular weight of the product and other fragments. There can still be further modifications for better results. First, the instruments to be used should always be dried properly to make sure that there will be no impurities such as water. Second, another round of distillation should also be done to have purer product to avoid seeing impurities. Lastly, it is greatly recommended for the yield to be analyzed at once since it was observed that for some, the distillate evaporated. V.REFERENCES Bernard, M., Chandler, Z. The-Mach. Elimination reactions; cyclohexene from cyclohexanol. http://the-mach.wikispaces.com/Elimination+reaction%3B+cyclohexene+from+cyclohexanol (accessed June 12, 2014) Khan Academy. E1 elimination: Carbocation rearrangements. https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/substitution-elimination-reactions/e1-e2-tutorial/v/e1-eliminationcarbocation-rearrangements (accessed June 12, 2014) Ault, A. Techniques and Experiments for Organic Chemistry, 6th ed.; Waveland Press Incorporated: Illinois, 1973. Eagleson, M. Concise Encyclopedia Chemistry; Walter De Gruyter Inc: Berlin, 1994. Masters, K., Williamson, K. Macroscale and Microscale Oorganic Experiments, 6th ed.; Cengage Learning: Stamford, USA, 2010 Clement, R.E., Karasek, F.W. Basic Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Techniques; Elsevier, 1988. University of Bristol. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). http://www.bris.ac.uk/nerclsmsf/techniques/gcms.html (accessed June 20, 2014) Baklajian, Alex (May 2012). Introduction to mass spectrometry. and water which co-distill (Eagleson, 1994). The distillate product is cyclohexene which is unsaturated and has the boiling point of 83 celcius. Synthesis was done via distillation since it helps in obtaining purer substances (Bernard-Chandler, n,d). Gas chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy is a physical method of separating a compound which are volatile and thermally stable. This instrument can separate, identify and quantify compounds. The two phases that involves the process are the stationary phase which is the column and the mobile phase which is the carrier gas like helium (Karesek-Clement, 1988). The vaporized sample will be attacked by beam of electrons which is called the ionization process in which the positively charged ionic fragments are produced. This process involves the removal of electrons since the beam of electrons knock off one electron from a molecule which forms the parent ion or molecular ion. Fragmentation happens with the product of ionization to give smaller charged and neutral pieces. A magnetic field would force the circular flow of the ions and the separation will occur since they will follow different path of radius 81.98 which gives us the relative formula mass of the molecule (University of Bristol, n.d; Ault, 1973). Also, it can be seen that there is a presence of an isotope since there is a peak that is close in value with the M+ to the right. This is because carbon has an isotope which is 13C. The natural abundance of Carbon 12 is much higher than the natural abundance of Carbon 13 but since the mass spectrometer gives very accurate results, it may be able to detect the isotope. The parent ion M+ has the highest mass among the peaks. Any peaks lower than the M+ are just considered as fragment readings in the spectrum while the isotope, denoted by M+1, is the peak which is to the right of the parent ion which is lower in intensity (chem.ucla.edu, n.d; Baklajian, 2012). Other peaks can be considered as just fragments. These fragments are due to the breaking down of the unstable positive ions (chemguide.co.uk, n.d; Ault, 1973). On the other hand, the base peak is the one with the 56 molecular weight indicated by its 100 reading in abundance. The base peak always has the highest abundance among all the peaks (Karesek-Clement, 1988). The peak with the 100.013812 reading can be considered as an i mpurity. Even if it has the highest mass reading, it was not considered as the molecular ion peak since the compound being talked about here is cyclohexene. To sum it all up, the group was able to collect cyclohexene via distillation of cyclohexanol. The obtained results from the mass spectrum showed the presence of an impurity and also an isotope peak. The yieldÃ¢â¬â¢s molecular weight (81.98) was indeed very close to the theoretical molecular weight which is 82. IV.CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION It was observed that in this experiment on synthesis of cyclohexene from cyclohexanol, the group was able to produce cyclohexene as can be seen in the mass spectra which indicates that the product obtained by the group had an 81.9265 molecular weight which is relatively close to the theoretical molecular weight of cyclohexene which is 82. The group was able to perform all of the objectives for this experiment which are to synthesize cyclohexene from cyclohexanol and obtain a mass spectra of the product via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In conclusion, the synthesis of cyclohexene from cyclohexanol can be done in many ways and distillation is one of its examples. chemguide.co.uk. Mass Spectra: The Molecular ion M+ Peak. http://www.chemguide.co.uk/analysis/masspec/mplus.html (accessed June 20, 2014) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6q-M5V9roL0 (accessed June 20, 2014) Chem.ucla.edu. Mass Spectrometry. [Online] n.d, http://www.chem.ucla.edu/harding/notes/notes_14C_MS.pdf (accessed June 20, 2014) Ã¢â¬Å"I hereby certify that I have given a substantial contribution to this report and I did not copy and/or quote from any resource material unless being cited as reference. I am make known that failure to accomplish the second clause would eb grounds for plagiarism and a failing grade for my final laboratory report.Ã¢â¬ Halili, Johanna Bernadette C. 11332654 Fig 1: Mass Spectrum of cyclohexene distillate Page 1 of 4 Experiment #1: Synthesis of Cyclohexene from Cyclohexanol
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
History, present and future of BRIC countries INTRODUCTION Our topic for research is BRIC issues, so firstly we must know what is BRIC. BRIC is a related acronym that refers to the economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China. This idea was incorporated by Brazilian president Luis Inacio Lula da Silva in June 2007. The basic reason for these four countries to come together was their common dissatisfaction the prevailing global economic and political order largely dominated by the US and her western allies. They have not been given the importance that these countries should have got in relation to their size and share in the economy. Its only the G-8 countries that decide for the future rules of global world order. So this was the reason for formation of the BRIC countries. The BRIC countries are also referred to as the big four as all of them are deemed to be at similar stage of economic development. The acronym was coined by Jim ONeill in a 2001 paper entitled The World Needs Better Economic BRICs. The following is the position of BRIC nations in relation to the world: Countries Share of world nominal GDP (%) Share of world military spending (%) Share of world population (%) Share of world landmass (%) Average share (%) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg/22px-Flag_of_Brazil.svg.pngÃ Brazil 3.3 1.7 2.8 5.6 3.4 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg/22px-Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg.pngÃ China 9.3 6.6 19.5 6.2 10.4 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg/22px-Flag_of_India.svg.pngÃ India 2.3 2.4 17.3 1.9 6.0 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Flag_of_Russia.svg/22px-Flag_of_Russia.svg.pngÃ Russia 2.4 3.5 2.1 10.9 4.7 According to Goldman Sachs, by 2050 the combined economies of the BRIC countries would eclipse the combined economies of the current richest countries in the world. The BRIC countries combined currently account for more than quarter of worlds land and more than 40% of worlds population. The economic potential of Brazil, Russia, India and China is such that they can become the top four dominant countries of the world by the year 2050. The following leaders were present at the summit: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3c/Lula_-_foto_oficial05012007_edit.jpg/80px-Lula_-_foto_oficial05012007_edit.jpg BrazilBrazil Luiz InÃ ¡cio Lula da Silva, President http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Dmitry_Medvedev_official_large_photo_-5.jpg/86px-Dmitry_Medvedev_official_large_photo_-5.jpg RussiaRussia Dmitry Medvedev, President http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Manmohansingh04052007.jpg/78px-Manmohansingh04052007.jpg IndiaIndia Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c4/Hu_Jintao_%28Cropped%29.png/107px-Hu_Jintao_%28Cropped%29.png Peoples Republic of ChinaChina Hu Jintao, President BRIC countries hold a combined GDP (PPP) of 15.435 trillion dollars. On almost every scale, they would be the largest entity on the global stage. These four countries are among the biggest and fastest growing emerging markets. In a paper Dreaming with BRICS: The Path to 2050, published in 2003, the following was estimated: Chinas economy will surpass the economy of Germany in the next few years, of Japan by 2015, and of the United States of America by 2041. The growth rate of India will be the highest and it will overtake Japan by 2032. BRICs currencies can appreciate by 300% over the next 50 years. Taken together, the BRIC countries can be larger than United States and the developed economies within 40 years. By the year 2025. The BRIC countries will bring about 200 million people with incomes above $15000 in the worlds economy. It is equal to the combined populations of Germany, France and United Kingdom. But according to the reports the economy of china overtook the economy of Germany in the year 2007 instead of the prediction of 2008 and Japan in the July 2010. ISSUES RELATING TO BRIC COUNTIES The first official BRIC summit was held on 16 June 2009, in Yekaterinburg, Russia. Luiz InÃ ¡cio Lula da Silva, Dmitry Medvedev, Manmohan Singh, and Hu Jintao, the respective leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and China, all attended this summit. The main focus of this summit was to improve the current global economic situation and discussing how these four countries could work together in the future for the development of the world economy. They also discussed how these countries could be better involved in global affairs in the future. They also suggested that there was a need for a new global reserve currency that is diversified, stable and predictable. This statement was a kind of an attack on the dominance of the US dollar. The foreign ministers of all these countries had earlier also met on May 16, 2008 in Yakaterinburg. One week before their first official summit, Brazil had offered $10 billion dollars to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) which was the first time that the country had ever made such a loan. This loan showed how the economy of Brazil is growing and that it is in a good state now. China has also planned to invest a total of $50.1 billion and Russia planned to invest $10 billion. The following the major issues discussed by BRIC: Coping with the current international financial crisis: Discussions were held on issues such as the worlds reserve currency and some countries will try and adopt local currencies as settlement currency for bilateral trade so that they can overcome the impact of international financial crisis and facilitate trade contacts with other countries. The BRIC countries discussed ways to overcome the financial crisis that many parts of the world were facing as a result of the crisis that started in U.S. Coping with global climate change: Another important BRIC issue is to cope with global climate change. This is a very important issue because we need to ensure that the world becomes a better planet to live in. The concept of sustainable development was stressed in solving this problem. Sustainable development means that the resources should be used efficiently and effectively such that it is not only useful to the present generations but also available for the future generations. They also discussed that environmental issues should not be made an excuse to restrain the economic and social development of emerging economies. Environmental degradation should not hinder economic growth. The colloquium on Climate Change Law and Governance in South Asia, aims to inspire legal discussion within and between the BRICs countries. It is being jointly organized by the Environment Ministry of Government of India and the Geneva-based International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Development of second and third generation renewable energies The development of second and third generation renewable energies is a subject of common interest for all the countries. They also hope that more and more countries of the world will participate in the development and utilization of renewable sources of energy so as to facilitate economic development. World peace and security: World peace and security is a universal issue concerning the human race. Without peace and security economic growth and development cannot happen. The emerging markets should play a greater role among international multilateral institutions to improve the efficiency, vitality of international multilateral mechanism. Such countries can play a positive role to preserve the sovereignty of all countries as well as maintain world peace. BRIC cooperation will enhance the voice of developing nations: BRIC countries share common interests and concerns in international affairs and should consolidate cooperation. It is necessary for the BRIC countries to strengthen dialogue, coordination and cooperation to enhance the overall voice and influence of emerging markets and developing countries, and promote world peace, stability and universal development. BRIC countries demand more say in financial system reform: The BRIC countries have welcomed the expansion of the Balse committee that standard accounting bodies need to be set up. The BRIC ministers agreed that stabilization of international financial system through liquidity support and recapitalization is a priority. They are also taking measures to promote domestic demand in their national economies. The BRIC countries to play roles as new donors to Africa: Africa has plenty to gain from the growing involvement of China and other BRIC nations in trade and investment on the continent Need for changes in global institutions, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank: The BRIC countries have realized the need for change in global institutions including the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. There is also a need to update regulation of financial markets to avoid another global crisis. On matters relating to the IMF, the countries have agreed to aim at achieving a significant 7% shift in Quota shares in favour of EMDCs and New arrangement to borrow. For the World Bank, the nations discussed ways and means of enhancing the voice participation of developing countries and agreed to aim for a shift of a 6% of parity. They also supported an increase in capital for both the World Bank and its private lending arm, the International Finance Corporation (IFC). Challenges in setting conditions for sustained growth: Brazil is the only nation where the growth rates have been less than expected. This is because Brazil is much less open to trade and it has lower investment and savings. The public and foreign debt is also very high. Unless these obstacles are removed, Brazil is unlikely to achieve the targets set for it. Environmental constraints: Environmental degradation is a critical risk to the economic rise of the BRIC nations. Global warming can have a bad impact on the rural incomes. Also urbanization and industrialization puts a lot of pressure on the environment. Many major cities like Shanghai, Mumbai, Rio de Janeiro are vulnerable to rising sea levels. Resources issue: Russia and Brazil are resource rich nations but china and India have to depend a lot upon imports to fuel their growth. If commodity prices rise, it will have a lot of effect on their imports and hence their growth. If technology advances and reduces dependence on conventional energy sources, Russia and Brazil will face reduced prospects for growth. Demographics: The population of India is increasing at a very high rate while the population of Russia is at decline. Brazil and China have declining populations (in case of China due to one family one child policy). Population decline could be a significant constraint for Russia and China, though China could avoid this by relaxing the rules a bit. Structural constraints: All the BRIC countries have structural issues which need to be addressed. India needs significant economic reforms. Brazil saves and invests too little. Each country should invest at least that much to ensure that it has infrastructure to maintain growth. Iran: Brazil has expressed affinity with China towards the Iranian nuclear issue. Development: China has showed willingness to be a positive partner in global development saying The scale and complexity of the challenges that we face in the course of development are unmatched anywhere else in the world and have been rarely seen in human history. China is willing to be dedicated to peace and cooperation and is willing to make greater contribution to mankind. The above were most of the major BRIC issues which we have tried to explain through our research.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Statement of Educational Goals and Philosophy As children we have many goals and dreams. Eventually, the time comes when we have to make a career decision based on our interests and goals. The choices that we make now will have a lasting effect on our lives. Like most college students I have explored many career options, but I am always lead back to the education field. Teachers have a very difficult job because they have the power to shape and inspire our future nation. Although that can be an intimidating and often scary thought, it also gives me inspiration to move ahead in pursuing my goal of becoming a teacher. I have always had a passion for children. There is nothing like watching a child grow and watching their mind expand as they learn. Teachers play such an important role in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life. They are often the only one who is there to encourage and support them. If I can make a difference in only one childÃ¢â¬â¢s life, then I will have fulfilled my purpose of becoming a teacher. Teaching is not only about standing in front of a classroom and showing children how to work a math problem. It involves a whole different element of modeling for children morals such as respect for oneself as well as others, self-discipline, and a positive self-concept. There are many different personalities and levels of learning in a classroom. As a teacher, I plan to know each of my students personality, learning style, and academic level so that I can conform to these needs and create the best learning environment possible for all of my students. The definition of knowledge is the fact or condition of knowing something with familiarity gained through experience or association. The nature of... ...ssignments efficiently. I plan to graduate from Concord in the Spring 2004. After graduation, I plan to enter the masters program at either Concord or West Virginia University. At some point in my career I plan to continue my education and obtain my doctorate in education. The teaching profession offers many benefits in its teacher union, so I plan to join the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s union wherever I will be employed. Teaching is a very rewarding career. I am very excited about completing my education and going into my own classroom. I hope that I can inspire my students and be a positive role model in their life. I want to be an effective teacher who brings out the best in my students; I want to show my students that they can do anything they put their mind to and I want to give them the confidence and the ambition to achieve their goals.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Earthquakes have plagued our lives for as long as people have inhabited the earth. These dangerous acts of the earth have been the cause of many deaths in the past century. So what can be done about these violent eruptions that take place nearly with out warning? Predicting an earthquake until now has almost been technologically impossible. With improvements in technology, lives have been saved and many more will. All that remains is to research what takes place before, during, and after an earthquake. This has been done for years to the point now that a successful earthquake prediction was made and was accurate. This paper will discuss a little about earthquakes in general and then about how predictions are made. Earthquake, Ã¢â¬Å"vibrations produced in the earth's crust when rocks in which elastic strain has been building up suddenly rupture, and then rebound.Ã¢â¬ (Associated Press 1993) The vibrations can range from barely noticeable to catastrophically destructive. Six kinds of shock waves are generated in the process. Two are classified as body waves-that is, they travel through the earth's interior-and the other four are surface waves. The waves are further differentiated by the kinds of motions they impart to rock particles. Primary or compressional waves (P waves) send particles oscillating back and forth in the same direction as the waves are traveling, whereas secondary or transverse shear waves (S waves) impart vibrations perpendicular to their direction of travel. P waves always travel at higher velocities than S waves, so whenever an earthquake occurs, P waves are the first to arrive and to be recorded at geophysical research stations worldwide.(Associated Press 1993) Earthquake waves were observed in this and other ways for centuries, but more scientific theories as to the causes of quakes were not proposed until modern times. One such concept was advanced in 1859 by the Irish engineer Robert Mallet. Perhaps drawing on his knowledge of the str ength and behavior of construction materials subjected to strain, Mallet proposed that earthquakes occurred Ã¢â¬Å"either by sudden flexure and constraint of the elastic materials forming a portion of the earth's crust or by their giving way and becoming fractured.Ã¢â¬ (Butler 1995) Later, in the 1870s, the English geologist John Milne devised a forerunner of today's earthquake-recording device, or seismograph. A simple pen... ... warned that a major quake would occur along the New Madrid fault before the end of the year. Like most predictions of this type, it proved to be wrong. Ã¢â¬Å"Groundwater has also played an important part in earthquake predictions. A peak in radon in the groundwater at Kobe, Japan 9 days before the 7.2 earthquake cause quite a stir. Radon levels peaked 9 days before the quake, then fell below the normal levels 5 days before it hit.Ã¢â¬ (Monastersky July, 95) In North America, the series of earthquakes that struck southeastern Missouri in 1811-12 were probably the most powerful experienced in the United States in historical time. The most famous U.S. earthquake, however, was the one that shook the San Francisco area in 1906, causing extensive damage and taking about 700 lives.(Nagorka 1989) The whole idea behind earthquake predicting is to save lives. With the improvement in technology, lives have been saved. New ideas and equipment is starting to prove to be very helpful in pr edicting were and when an earthquake will strike. The time and research put into earthquake predicting has already started to pay off. It is only a matter of time before earthquakes will no longer be a threat to us.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
It is believed that Prussia achieved and secured dominance in Germany because of the role of Bismarck, who got rid of the opposition in the Parliament, strengthened the Prussian army, exploited PrussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic development and won three wars to secure the unification of Germany. However, it is also argued that international scenes too, helped Prussia make a mark as the strongest nation in Europe. Firstly, Prussia managed to secure dominance in Germany due to BismarckÃ¢â¬â¢s action to get rid of the opposition in the government in order to pass the Army Bill. The Army Bill was needed to prepare for the army by increasing their size, re-equipping the army as well as to increase the years of service from 2-3 years. Bismarck got hold of the Army Bill by withdrawing it from the parliament and collected taxes to fund the army. Thus, BismarckÃ¢â¬â¢s role that got rid of opposition in the government made Prussia the strongest nation in Germany. Secondly, Prussia achieved and secured dominance in Germany by strengthening the Prussian army. He used the Army Bill to finance the army. Furthermore, he was also helped by War Minister Von Roon who ensured that Prussian army were increased in number, better trained and well armed. In addition, General Helmuth Van Moltke, Chief of the General Staff helped by becoming the brain of Prussian army, laying plans for mobilisation and military operations. Therefore, Prussia achieved and secured dominance in Germany by strengthening Prussian army. Thirdly, PrussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic exploitation by Bismarck was believed to be one of the reasons why Prussia had managed to achieve and secure dominance in 1848-1871. Bismarck had managed to manipulate the already-existing custom union known as Zollverein that encouraged free trade within the nation where international tariffs was abolished. Currencies, systems of weights and measurements were unified to promote easy trading within the Zollverein states. Number of railway networks increased and they become more efficient providing better access to coal, iron and steel transportation. Hence, BismarckÃ¢â¬â¢s economic reform became one of the reasons why Prussia was dominant in Germany. Lastly, Prussia had secured its dominance and made a mark as one of the strongest nation in Europe by winning three wars; Danish War, Austro-Prussian War and the Franco-Prussian War. Firstly, Danish war broke out subsequently after King Fredrick of DenmarkÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to incorporate Schleswig with Denmark which violated the Treaty of London (1852). Despite the disunity and hostility against each other, Austria and Prussia had worked hand-in-hand to defeat Denmark. As a result, Austria took control over Holstein and Prussia, Schleswig. During the Austro-Prussian War, Prussia had provoked Austria to war by proposing a reorganisation in German Confederation which will exclude Austria, on June 10. Due to the diplomatic isolation of Austria and their lack of alliances, Prussia had the upper hand with modern weapons which resulted in AustriaÃ¢â¬â¢s defeat and the signing of Treaty of Prague (1866). Franco-Prussian War was a result of BismarckÃ¢â¬â¢s action who took advantage of the Bad Ems Telegram which he edited with intention to insult France until they demanded war. The well-organised Prussian army with its allies easily destroyed France and even gained control over Alsace-Lorraine. Therefore, PrussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s victory in these three wars was one of the reasons why Prussia was the strongest nation in Europe during the period. However, it is also argued that the international scenes such as Britain, Russia, Italy and Austria, too, helped Prussia make a mark as one of the strongest nation in Europe. Firstly, BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s no-intervention policy which is also known as an isolationist foreign policy was one of the reasons why Prussia had managed to secure its dominance in Germany. Britain was more concerned about her economical interest than her political interest. During both the Danish and Austro-Prussian wars, Britain took no action at all despite DenmarkÃ¢â¬â¢s accusation for violating the Treaty of London (1852) prior to Danish War. Furthermore, BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s hostile relationship with France was clearly not an advantage to the French during the Franco-Prussian War. This, BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s no-intervention policy had helped Prussia to secure dominance in Germany. Moreover, RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s recovery from the Crimean War (1855) was one of the reasons why Prussia became dominant in Germany. During the Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian wars, Russia had remained neutral as an exchange to PrussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s neutrality during RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Crimean War against France and Britain. Alexander Tsar had willingly paid Prussia for her neutrality in all affairs involving Prussia. Hence, RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s neutrality during PrussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s wars against France and Austria was one of the reasons why, Prussia had managed to secure dominance in Germany. Thirdly, ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement was one of the reasons why Prussia had managed to secure dominance in Germany. In the Austro-Prussian war, Italy lent a helping hand to Bismarck to defeat Austria. Prussia took the advantage of AustriaÃ¢â¬â¢s weak defence when Austria had to deploy some troops to deal with the disturbance and riot in the Piedmontese-Austrian border which was organised by Italy. Furthermore, Italy was occupied with her own unification process whilst Prussia was securing its dominance in the German nation. Therefore, by having alliance with Italy during the Austro-Prussian war, Prussia achieved and secured dominance in Germany. Lastly, both AustrianÃ¢â¬â¢s assistance and situation had assisted Prussia to become one of the strongest nations in Europe. Despite the hostility with Austria, Prussia had co-operated together with Austria in the Danish War to gain Schleswig. In return, Austria governed Holstein. Moreover, Austria was weakened after the war against Prussia in which they were defeated due to their incapability to cope against PrussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s well-organised military system and modernised weaponries. Thus, Prussia managed to achieve and secure dominance with AustriaÃ¢â¬â¢s help and by taking advantage of AustriaÃ¢â¬â¢s weakened state. In conclusion, Prussia achieved and secured dominance in Germany due to the role of Bismarck who got rid of opposition in the Parliament, strengthened Prussian army, exploited PrussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic development and won three wars. In addition, international scenes too, helped Prussia make a mark as the strongest nation in Europe.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Moreover, the homophobia in the society introduces conflict within the family and leads the narrator to lose his identity and become modified into an individual that society approves of. He holds society responsible for the disintegration of this family. The story is told by a narrator whose name we never find out. Tortes does this in order to emotionally detach the readers from the character and instead, direct their focus towards the larger message that the story conveys.Tortes uses narrative and structure in the chapter, The Night I am Made, in order to emphasize the inflict and isolation felt by the narrator because of society expectations of him. The chapter, The Night I am Made, is integral to the plot of the book because it deals with the actual problem in the narrators life. Until this point, the readers are given the sense that the family loves each other and will go to the ends of the Earth for each other. By the end of the chapter, the family is torn apart, leaving the rea ders to blame society for the way it influences relationships.Tortes starts the chapter talking about the boys growing up. He Uses Ã¢â¬Å"TheyÃ¢â¬ in this chapter, as opposed to the Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬ that was used in the revises chapters. This change is pronoun use signals the beginning of the isolation felt by the narrator. The narrator goes on to describe his brothers and how degenerate they have and will become. He is directly talking to his Ã¢â¬ËPas' and expresses his disapproval at the way that his brothers are turning out. The narrator is different from his brothers since he works hard at school and is not rough like them.On page 104, he refers to the Puerco Ricans as Ã¢â¬Ëhaving language'. Tortes proposes the concept of inherited language as being similar to inherited identity. The brothers behave the way that the father goes; they react with violence and not words. The Puerco Ricans had language because it was passed down from their ancestors, like the violence and the physical abuse was passed down from Pas to his sons. However, the narrator does not seem to be one of recipients of this gift and therefore, he feels further isolated.The following quote solidifies this idea of isolation and the contrast that the narrator feels when compared to his brothers. Ã¢â¬Å"And me now. Look at me. See me there with them, in the snow Ã¢â¬â both inside and outside their understanding. See how I made them uneasy. They smelled my preference -? my sharp, sad, pansy scent. They believed I would know a world larger than their own. They hated me for my good grades, for my white ways. Ã¢â¬ The above quote refers to the narrator as having Ã¢â¬Å"white waysÃ¢â¬ and therefore, not being Puerco Rican enough.By the means of this paragraph, Tortes sets the narrator apart from his family and forces him to feel different. Tortes intentionally does not introduce or describe any characters apart from the five family members, because at the end of the book, when the n arrator becomes isolated from his family, the readers are left with a sense that he rule does not have anyone in his life to love him and take care of him. Also, the last line of the chapter refers to their last night together, signifying that a big change sites to come.The rest of the chapter is divided into smaller sub- chapters, namely Midnight, Late Night, Deep Night and Dawn. In Midnight, the readers see the first time there is real conflict that divides the brothers. Tortes switches between using Ã¢â¬ËWe' and Ã¢â¬ËThey' to show that the narrator is struggling between maintaining his identity as part of his family and creating one for himself. The narrator turns on his brothers, verbally abusing them. Up until this point in the story, he is the brother that is least violent; by screaming at his brothers, he is using their means to separate himself.Tortes intentionally makes him violent but not in a physical manner, which means that his brothers can still overpower him. The following quote indicates the real violence that the narrator had kept hidden throughout the years. Ã¢â¬Å"l kept a journal Ã¢â¬â in it, sharpened insults against all of them, my folks, my brothers. I turned new eyes to them, a newly caustic gaze. Ã¢â¬ These words by the narrator infirm his violent nature and are a testament to his upbringing. He is just as violent as his brothers, but only in a different way.This difference is what makes him isolated from them. In this way, he is the same brother that grew up with the family but his sexual desires succeed in ostracize him from them. On page 1 10, the narrator describes the way his brothers held him when they were trying to beat him up. The scene is written as though it was brotherly and loving. Ã¢â¬Å"[T]hey didn't want to let me go. Ã¢â¬ They were holding him in order to hurt him but the narrators desire to feel like he was part of the Emily causes him to view this scene as one that speaks about brotherly love.The narrato r had previously claimed that his brothers would bleed for him; Tortes is now proving him wrong by turning them on him. Tortes ends Midnight by saying that there was no other boy like the narrator, solidifying his isolation from his brothers as well as the loneliness he feels. The next chapter, Late Night, describes one of the sexual encounters that the narrator has. Tortes does not confirm whether this happened within the plot or is one of the sexual fantasies from the narrator's journal.Either way, the sexual elation's that the boy has with the bus driver bring him immense pleasure and result in his sexual awakening. Ã¢â¬Å"The cold gathered in the tips of those fingers, so every. Veer he touched me was a dull stab of This quote suggests that the bus driver was helping him understand his own sexual nature. While this was surprising to him, it helped to make sense Of his sexual desires. The quote Ã¢â¬Å"My brothers will lose themselves tonight; they'll search for me in the whitenes s; they'll drownÃ¢â¬ shows that he is alone, which does not happen throughout the book.Tortes always portrays the narrator as being tit his brothers or his family but this time, he is alone and learning about himself. By stating this, the narrator once again distinguishes himself from his brothers because he has gone to a place that they cannot access. Personally, I believe that this scene is part of the narrators journal because it is where he can be true to his identity and not worry about his brothers showing up. Instead, he is comfortable exposing himself to a stranger in the hopes of learning more about himself. The chapter closes with the narrator yelling that the bus driver made him.By the use of this line, Tortes suggests that the sexual encounter influenced the way that the narrator created an identity for himself. The following chapter, Deep Night, sees the narrators family finding the journal that contains explicit sexual fantasies and sharp insults against his own par ents. The story' in this section begins with the following quote. Ã¢â¬Å"Everything easy between me and my brothers and my mother and my father was lostÃ¢â¬ . This quote suggests that a homophobic society has resulted in his family looking at him in a different light.He is no longer their son or brother, and the simple functionality of the family dynamic is now lost to him. Even as the narrator knew that everything was falling apart because his parents and brothers had read his journal, he looks at his mother and says Ã¢â¬Å"I'll kill youÃ¢â¬ . Tortes intentionally highlights the violent nature of the narrator in order to emphasize that he is conflicted between loving and hating his family for what they are putting him through. Since the violence is what holds then together, the narrator attempts one last time to find common ground between them by acting out.His father wants to reciprocate but his brothers pull him down and thereby, isolating him from their familial unit. [S]meo w, at the same time, that they were keeping him back, they were supporting himÃ¢â¬ . The narrators family, in this case, not only exhibits non-violent behavior but also act as support systems to help each other get through this situation. The fact the Tortes places the narrator outside of this family and without any support makes his isolation more explicit. Towards the end of the chapter, the narrator becomes an animal in order to try and connect with his family.He resorts back to violence, which was a constant throughout his entire childhood. However, as he becomes more and more violent, the parents and rooters Ã¢â¬Å"retreat into their love forÃ¢â¬ the narrator. They oppose the approach that the narrator was taking, which means the narrator is left alone and without any means by which he can communicate with his family. On page 1 17, the narrator says the journal might have been a way of coming-out for him, so that he could be found and he could stop hiding. The only way tha t this would happen would be if everything was out in the open.This did not work in favor of the narrator's wishes and only ended up creating conflict between the narrator and his family members. The narrative in this chapter ascribes the hospital the boy will be sent to with words such as neutered, which refers to the sexless identity that the society and his family want him to have. Also, Tortes uses the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"still burning a youth glow' in order to highlight the fact that the narrator is a young boy who has a lot more to accomplish in life and yet, the homophobia in the society makes it so that the will spend the rest of his days in the hospital.The final section, Dawn, narrates the preparation for the narrator to go to the hospital in third person. The narrator is no longer talking, and therefore, Tortes is suggesting that his ice is subdued; this is similar to the way in which is identity is being suppressed by his family. Also, Tortes refers to the characters as Ã¢â¬Ë a father', Ã¢â¬Ëhis son' etc. He does this in order to show that society has reduced these characters and their strong, familial bonds to a generic relationship. They no longer have any history or uniqueness attached to their relationships.Instead, they are represented as a regular, loving family. By hiding their violence and past, Tortes creates a new, reductive identity for the family. While the father gives his son (the narrator) a bath, he pretends like it is a outing task. Tortes does this in order to show the readers that the father is forced to pretend to be normal and happy because it is what society expects Of him. He is not allowed to show his real emotions in the wake Of his son coming out. The father unscrews a bulb in the bathroom, claiming that it has always been too bright in there.Tortes is suggesting that the father would prefer to do this in darkness, therefore, not being able to see his son properly. Also, this shows that the father is keen on hiding away in th e darkness and doesn't want to embrace his son. This isolates the boy and rates conflict in their relationship. As the father gives his son a bath against his will, he says, Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, you got rights. What you don't got is powerÃ¢â¬ . This serves as analogy for the greater society having power over the individual even though they have rights to be themselves.Tortes is suggesting that in this case, the society is winning the battle against the individual because of homophobia. In addition to this, the act of giving a bath renders the narrator naked and vulnerable. The father is giving his son a bath and exposing his weakest spots. Later, he goes on to dress the boy and thereby, essentially retreating a new identity for the narrator. This new identity fulfills social expectations and re-creates the sense of self that the individual has. By cleaning and dressing the boy, the father ensures that all the natural elements about the narrators personality are removed.The bath can be see n as a form of cleansing, where the removal of dirt equals removal of character. Later on, the clipping of toenails can also be seen as the removal of unwanted parts. On page 121 , the father looks at the boy as if he was looking at a Ã¢â¬Å"deep cut or a too-bright morning'. These are two sore images that will most likely cake one squint and therefore, miss the actual sight. In this case, Tortes includes these images within the narrative to emphasize that the homophobic society clouds the father's vision so that he can no longer fully appreciate his son.The following quote describes the Isolation felt by the narrator when he hears his mother refer to his brothers as Ã¢â¬Ëthe boys', excluding him from the pack. Ã¢â¬Å"[H]owe quickly and fully the son in the tub is excluded from that designation; how badly the boy wishes to be out there with his brothers doing as he is toldÃ¢â¬ . The quote states that the narrator wants to return a more useful time when it was possible to run aro und with his brothers and be referred to by his mother as normal. This loss of family isolates the narrator and creates conflict within him.The closing scene is of the brothers swiveling snow. Snow is a natural occurrence that is controlled by human beings by activities such as swiveling. In the course of the narrative, the brothers, along with their parents, are attempting to control and remove what is natural about the narrator. Therefore, the swiveling represents manipulating the natural in order to overcome it and is directly related to what the family is owing to change the narrator's identity. They are doing this to the extent that they are preparing for his stay at the psych ward.Also, the fact that the brothers are swiveling snow while the narrator is inside is indicative of his isolation from the rest of the family, especially his brothers. The titles of the sub-chapters refer to times during the night, and the last one refers to dawn. Since nighttime is associated with dar kness and hiding, Tortes uses Midnight, Late Night and Deep Night in order to describe the narrators true violent and sexual nature. These sub-chapters deal with the reality of the narrators situation.Tortes makes it so that the last sub-chapter, Dawn, involves the process of eliminating the identity of the narrator in order to create a new one for him, one that is more socially acceptable. Since Dawn refers to the time of day when daylight is starting to peek in, Tortes is suggesting that the work of the society is almost done because it was successful is re-constructing a new self for the narrator. This is the self that will be used to go outside in the light and not be hidden away. At the heart of this novel is a story about a title boy growing up and unsuccessfully attempting to find his place in the world.This ensures that the mainstream, heterosexual audience is able to relate to the story as well. As for the LIGHT community, the novel portrays different ways in which the soci ety can affect the individual and their families. It also acknowledges the loss of identity for a LIGHT person due to the pressure vitrifying to be someone else. The overarching message is that growing up is a hard thing to do. The society which envelops this plot line is extremely homophobic and has caused the family to look at the narrator in a efferent light.
1. Who will your target audience(s) be for this coming year? When using direct mail as a medium for fund raising, firms measure their performance by comparing the dollars earned with the dollars spent (Bhagat and Donovan). Hence, for the coming year we should concentrate on those who can give us the maximum amount of money while we keep our costs at the lowest possible. Also, most of our donors are in the retired age bracket. For these reasons we should concentrate on targeting middle age people; those who have are concerned about others and also have the means to help them.2. What proportion of your budget will you allocate for new requests versus ongoing communication? At least half of the budget should be allocated for new requests as the company is in dire need of altering its current donor list age bracket. 3. What other communication tactics might you use to try and reach potential donors? The firm can use many other tactics such as online mailing, setting up a website, making online forums where people can come and discuss new ideas and giving an advertisement in the newspaper.However, newspaper advertisement will cost a lot and thus, the chosen newspaper must be the one which is widely read by the target audience. 4. How might you distinguish yourself from other charities making requests for funds? A lot of fundraisers show their donors the monetary benefits of raising funds through them. We do not think this is a healthy practice as those giving away something should not be interested in getting more back.Hence, we will distinguish ourselves from others by highlighting the benefits that society will get out of our the donorsÃ¢â¬â¢ gesture to help others. 5. Is there any certain determinant you can think of that might help you identify good potential donors? While identifying potential donors, we will need to know if they have been giving donations in the past and how they feel about that. That can be identified through inviting people to online discu ssions and then contacting those whom we think have the potential via direct mail to give donations.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Lyndon Baines Johnson, also known as the LBJ, had a vision of a Great Society for his fellow citizens that led him to become the 36th president of United States of America. The humble beginnings of Lyndon were not to be regarded as full of luxuries and paradise travels as he felt the anguish of the poor and socially disadvantaged people and saw the pinch of rural poverty. Before he slided into presidency, earning money for the family constituted his youth that made him surged deeped into compassion for the impoverished people and pursuit for a great society. The main theme of the origins of the legendary LBJ was the rise from social and economic ills and finding ways to instigate change in the mainstream society of America where he was actually isolated from. According to LBJ, Ã¢â¬Å"When I was young, poverty was so common we did not know it had a nameÃ¢â¬ . Though he was socially accustomed to think that he would have to deal with poverty and isolation from refinement, Lyndon came to a realization that he was Ã¢â¬Å"special- a young man destined for exceptional thingsÃ¢â¬ . Eager to fulfill his destiny and inspired to solve poverty, Lyndon struggled to have a decent yet competitive education with the support of his humble parents, Sam Ealy Johnson Jr. , a farmer and politician, and Rebekah Baines Johnson, a journalist. Solving poverty might be the factor that fueled his political dreams, but it was his father who greatly influenced him in his political actions. His father was a man of ambition and integrity as a legislator serving two terms in 1904. His father was regarded as the agrarian liberal or populist who Ã¢â¬Å"would not allow himself to be bought by lobbyists who dominated the proceedingsÃ¢â¬ . Rebekah BainesÃ¢â¬â¢s line of descent as a journalist had equipped Lyndon with a deep Ã¢â¬Å"sense of inherited superiority. Ã¢â¬ The parents were astonished in LyndonÃ¢â¬â¢s youth that was full of revelations and inklings about his future in the field of politics. As a gifted child and empowered by the praises and encouragement from his family, Lyndon went to local public schools, graduating from high school in 11924. After his graduation, Lyndon spent three uyears traveling around and applying for odd jobs before finally landing at the Southwest Texas State Teachers College that later became the Texas State University-San Marcos. It was in his college days that he gave out Ã¢â¬Å"concern, friendship, and benevolent support. Ã¢â¬ Lyndon said, Ã¢â¬Å" Some men want power simply to strut around the world and to hear the tune of the Ã¢â¬ËHail to the ChiefÃ¢â¬â¢ while others want it simply to build prestige, to collect antiques and to buy prertty things-well, I wanted power to give things to people, all sorts of things to all sorts of people, especially the poor and the blacks. Ã¢â¬ Known as the embodiment of the great Texan spirit of self-denial, conservation, and service, Lydon became a popular figure at the university not in terms of academic performance. This event led to a career milestone for Lyndon. LyndonÃ¢â¬â¢s career before the presidency was in education. He started as a teacher at the Welhausen Elementary School where he showed the children Ã¢â¬Å"a sense of importance most of them had never known before. Ã¢â¬ He moved to the Sam Houston High School before landing up a job in the congress as a secretary to a US congressman from the Fourteenth District in Texas in 1931. In this, Lyndon became more empowered to pursue his ambition. He became the Director of National Youth Administration that greatly addressed the Ã¢â¬Å"concern of RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s New Deal to save a generation of young people from ignorance, unemployment, and enduring hardship. Ã¢â¬ Undaunted by the economic depression, he was elected to House of Representatives and campaigned successfully on a New Deal platform with the help of his wife Claudia Taylor. He joined the Navy for a brief period as lieutenant commander and won a Silver Star in the South Pacific. After serving six terms in the House, he was elected to the senate in 1948. In the 1960, Lyndon became John F. KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s running mate and sworn in as Vice President. Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, Lyndon sworn in as the President of the United States. A. Foreign and Domestic Policies Several politicians and critics of the LBJ presidency were at one in stating that the administration, together with its foreign and domestic policies, had its peaks and valleys. During the first year of the LBJ administration, the president saw many impressions bestowed upon him as he entirely devoted much effort and time on Ã¢â¬Å"vital domestic matters, both the tax cut and the civil rights law. Ã¢â¬ Impressions at this time said that the president might not be interested in foreign policies because of LBJÃ¢â¬â¢s adept focus on the real needs of Americans. LBJ was like a domestic politician who could not care less about external affairs. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"Foreigners are not like the folks IÃ¢â¬â¢m used to. Ã¢â¬ After establishing a new civil rights bill and tax cuts, LBJ urged the nation to unite as one in creating a Ã¢â¬Å"Great Society, a place where men are more concerned with the quality of their goals and than the quantity of their goods. Ã¢â¬ The domestic policies of LBJ were concentrated on issues such as Ã¢â¬Å"civil rights, social welfare, anti-poverty programs, and labor. Ã¢â¬ The LBJ administration made a great deal about education, Medicare, urban renewal, conservation of the environment, health, voting rights, prevention of crime and delinquency and an amendment to the Social Security Act. The LBJ presidency also made explorations of space with three astronauts successfully orbiting the moon in December 1968. The administration also sought to fight the inevitable crisis from Vietnam that forced the president to impose budget cuts on domestic policies so that he would be able to push through with the foreign and defense policies. The LBJ policies pointing to Asia, Europe, Middle East, and Latin America Ã¢â¬Å"were bound up with the war in Vietnam. Ã¢â¬ Despite his efforts to stop the Communist war and reach an agreement, the war continued. Heated debate arose with the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to limit the bombing in North Vietnam in order to instigate negotiations. There are critics who said that the great foreign policy failure of the administration was its treatment to Vietnam. Following his firm stance on Communist Aggression, LBJ was convinced to gove Vietnam limited help. He said that he Ã¢â¬Å"would not permit the independent nations of the East to be swallowed up by the Communist conquest, but it would not mean sending American boys 9 or 10,000 miles away from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for themselves. Ã¢â¬ To show firmness and decisiveness, LBJ ordered only retaliatory attacks to the aggressive North Vietnam and launched Ã¢â¬Å"Rolling ThunderÃ¢â¬ , a sustained bombing campaign to Vietnam. According to LBJ, Ã¢â¬Å"the key to peacemaking was to arrange a settlement that both preserved South Vietnam as an independent state for the foreseeable future and the quickest possible American exit from a war the country by 1968 no longer wished to fight. Ã¢â¬ Such assumption suggested that LBJ was Ã¢â¬Å"torn between an honorable exit and his desire to not to be the first president to lose a foreign war. Ã¢â¬ B. The Decision Not to Run for Re-Election When LBJ commanded to limit the bombing of Vietnam, he paired such action with a decision to withdraw from the re-election so that he might find some time for the quest for peace with no interruptions coming from politics. LBJ came to realization that he would not allow the presidency to be involved in any partisan movements which had infiltrated the United States since the advent of the Vietnam war. His policy of military escalation and the US participation in the war had overshadowed his popular standing and he was not able to establish real concessions for the peacemaking process. After his decision, the Vietnam aggression dragged on. By withdrawing from the re-election, Ã¢â¬Å"the administration found it difficult to act decisively,Ã¢â¬ LBJÃ¢â¬â¢s decision not to run in the reelection was the outcome of his discernment in which he had to go through with his failing political instincts. Prior to his announcement, LBJ had to endure the criticisms which came with the rapid involvement of the US in the Vietnam war, racial tension in the American soil leading to widespread civil riots in the 1960s and the flaws of the Great Society movements. The flawed policies and programs of the LBJ administration led to Republican gains in the 1966 election and dwindled the hopes of Lyndon to further his participation in the Congress. It was in this turbulent period that antiwar candidate Senator Eugene McCarthy gained momentum to head the Ã¢â¬Å"dump JohnsonÃ¢â¬ movement within the Democratic Party. The failure of his actions made it impossible for LBJ Ã¢â¬Å"to leave the White House without attracting hostile protesters. Ã¢â¬ 1968 had been dubbed as the Ã¢â¬Å"year everything went wrongÃ¢â¬ for the LBJ administration. II. Political Climate A. The Dominance of the Democratic Party LBJ made his congressional district in Texas as his foundation in his pursuit for a national role in the Democratic Party. He was Ã¢â¬Å"frustrated with the bureaucratic inertia and lack of innovation in fundraising by the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC) and Democratic National Committee (DNC). Ã¢â¬ It was in this frustration that he developed a finite and negative impression of the national party committees that greatly influenced his leadership to the political party. His support to the Democratic Party saw him finding ways on how to finance hundreds of congressional particularly those who have a good of winning and satisfying their requests. As a congressional campaign manager for the House, his vigorous fundraising strategies to support the candidates earned him the respect and support coming from FDR and the other congressmen whom he helped to win. When FDR asked LBJ the result of the campaign, LBJ replied that the Democratic Party would not lose. He says to FDR that Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢re not going to lose, weÃ¢â¬â¢re going to gain. Ã¢â¬ Now that the House was run by literate Democrats, what FDR had started, including the Social Security (FICA) Program would soon see radical change. During his presidency, LBJ took the Social Security Program from independent trust fund and transferred it to the General fund in order for the Congress to spend it on valuable measures such as in the enactment and foreign and defense policies pointing to the unending war in Vietnam. LBJÃ¢â¬â¢s military escalation policy to Vietnam failed and his domestic policies on civil war and racial tension became undone which had shattered the Democratically-controlled House and Senate. These dark moments became the finest hour of Republicans. B. Ã¢â¬Å"The Johnson TreatmentÃ¢â¬ Lyndon was renowned for his arm twisting of influential politicians in order to pursure legislation. He became famous for his authoritative glance and powers of persuasion, dispensing them with what became popular as the Ã¢â¬Å"Johnson TreatmentÃ¢â¬ . Such coinage was used to describe the domineering personality of LBJ who tend to impose physical size and initimidation in order to advance what he had to say. Lyndon once said, Ã¢â¬Å" I do understand power, whatever else may be said about me, I know where to look for it and I know how to use. Ã¢â¬ One of the key elements in LyndonÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership and power was his use of the Ã¢â¬Å"Johnson TreatmentÃ¢â¬ that was an eclecic mix of flattery, gentle pleading, logic, and threats. He was able to strategically utilize the Ã¢â¬Å"Johnson TreatmentÃ¢â¬ in the way he gained full control of the Democratic Policy Committee, managed relations within the senate, maintained connections with the Republicans and the Liberals who supported civil rights for the African Americans, solidified control under his leadership, and established a coup when he was still a majority leader convincing the Senate to increase public spending on housing sector. It was in this coup that the he became a master politician or the master of the Senate because of his display of single-mindedness, skill and attention to details. But LBJÃ¢â¬â¢s art of persuading and use of intimidation was no match against the revolutionary nationalists such as Gamal Abdel Nasser who said, Ã¢â¬Å"the West if the enemy, while the Soviets are kindred spirits and purveyors of weapons unobtainable elsewhere. Ã¢â¬ The Ã¢â¬Å"Johnson TreatmentÃ¢â¬ failed to instill a positive effect on Nasser who continually resisted American policies and Ã¢â¬Å"denounced American imperialism in Congo. Ã¢â¬ LBJ deeply shocked with the unveiling of the Ã¢â¬Å"Blueprint for the Liberation of PalestineÃ¢â¬ accompanied by Nasser statement that the only way to liberation was Arab revolutionary action. The failure of the Ã¢â¬Å"Johnson TreatmentÃ¢â¬ was equally defined by LBJÃ¢â¬â¢s unsuccessful leadership to pull the United States out of the quagmire of the Vietnam war. The failure of the Ã¢â¬Å"Johnson TreatmentÃ¢â¬ was viewed by the Americans as the failure of his policies toward Vietnam. The solution to the Vietnam unrest was one of the goals of the three presidents before LBJ and just like them, the LBJ sought to determine how to prevent the North Vietnamese Communists from acquiring South Vietnam that the US supported. C. The Civil Rights Movement Reformation of the civil rights proved to be the greatest challenge to LBJÃ¢â¬â¢s majority leadership and to his presidency later on. In the mind of LBJ, the civil rights issue Ã¢â¬Å"was a fundamental prerequisite to strengthening the American voice abroad. Ã¢â¬ LBJ sought to Ã¢â¬Å"mount a social revolution in civil rights and the extension of the welfare state. Ã¢â¬ His policies on alleviating poverty and upholding rights were aiming at demonstrating that Ã¢â¬Å"he was a president who could rise above politics to serve the national interest. Ã¢â¬ The reform in the civil rights in the US started from a small-scale demonstrations before key players, movements, leaders and organizations finally constructed a vivid change. LBJ was one of the key leaders in bringing change. The turbulent period of the 1940s and the early 1950s was attributable to the Ã¢â¬Å"white southerners who controlled Congress and engineered the defeat of six civil rights bills. Ã¢â¬ The white group opposed the integration with blacks and Ã¢â¬Å"argued that individual states should have the right to manage their own affairs. Ã¢â¬ They used statesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights in order to promote segregation, Ã¢â¬Å"a system of laws that required African Americans to be separated from the whites. Ã¢â¬ As such caused a significant backlash that came in the forms of protests and racial violence in the middle of the 1950s as African Americans continued to push harder for equal rights. The period was made more turbulent with the enactment of the Jim Crow laws that reinforced segregation. The Jim Crow laws banned African American students from going to educational institutions with white students and also prevented blacks from going to swimming pools, hotels and other establishments where there were whites. Jim Crow laws prohibited African Americans from voting and denied them many opportunities which were only provided for the whites. Then came Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. , who led the civil rights protests until his death by assassination in 1968. Harder violence was pushed through with the struck down of segregation in schools. As a southerner who had accustomed himself to the separation of blacks and whites thoroughout his career, LBJ Ã¢â¬Å"seemed to be an unreliable advocate of civil rights statute. Ã¢â¬ He supported civil rights but he was aware that the Ã¢â¬Å"pushing for a strong bill would anger many Democrats in the South. Ã¢â¬ As a compromise, LBJ Ã¢â¬Å"worked out a deal with southerners to pass a weakened bill and convinced liberal western membbers to pass it in exchange for support for a dam they wanted built. Ã¢â¬ The bill became the first civil rights legislation enacted by the Congress in 82 years and LBJ took all the credit for it. The Civil Rights Act was proposed by the President John F. Kennedy in 1963 and quickly became a controversial issue. The Civil Rights Act would guarantee African Americans with freedom to vote, to go to places of public accommodation, and with equal opportunity in employment. Although the Congress did not approve of KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s initiative, a stronger version of the bill was eventually approved with the constant urging of KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s successor, LBJ. On July 2, 1964, LBJ signed the bill into law and soon became the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that gave the federal law enforcement agencies the authority to stop and prevent racial violence and discrimination in voting, employment and in the utilization of public facilities. III. The Great Society A. Civil Rights The Great Society domestic programs of LBJ were aiming at two creating social reforms for the elimination of poverty and racial discrimination. One of legacies of the Great Society programs was translating some of the needs and demands of the civil rights movement into law. During the LBJ presidency, four civil rights acts had secured their passage in Congress. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 stopped job discrimination and the segregation in the use of public facilities. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 eliminates the Ã¢â¬Å"use of literacy requirements and other methods to keep African Americans from voting. Ã¢â¬ In LBJÃ¢â¬â¢s pursuit for the Great Society, he also gave the nation urban renewal programs, housing subsidies, tax cuts, Traffic Highway Safety Act, National Commission on Product Safety, and environment beautification programs. B. War on Poverty LBJ was determined to Ã¢â¬Å"promote economic growth and commit the nation to a Ã¢â¬Ëwar on poverty. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ The war on poverty was deemed as the most ambitious and controversial part of the Great Society. Headed by Sargent Shriver, the war on poverty promised to improve AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ standard of living. LBJ said to Shriver, Ã¢â¬Å"You make this thing work. Appoint all the committees you want to, confer with everybody. Ã¢â¬ LBJ continued, Ã¢â¬Å"This is number one on the domestic front. Next to peace in the world, this is the most important. Ã¢â¬ The unconditional war on poverty implemented by LBJ was confronted with resistance from the 88th Congress that later on granted Ã¢â¬Å"$947. 5 million in 1964 for the antipoverty program. Ã¢â¬ The centerpiece of the antipoverty program was the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 that LBJ signed on August 22, 1964 and established the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO). The anti-poverty program included the Job Corps and Neighborhood Corps, food stamp program, rent subsidies for moderate and low-income families, a youth employment initiative, and other antipoverty efforts. The initiative lessened the poverty rate in the US from Ã¢â¬Å"22. 4 percent in the late 1950s to 11. 1 percent in 1973. Ã¢â¬ C. Medicare/Medicaid Medicare was included in the package that was the extension of the War on Poverty. Representative Hale Boggs said that during LBJ presidency, Ã¢â¬Å"the Congress passed more bills than had ever been passed in all the rest of history of the country together. Ã¢â¬ Included in the passed bills was a Medicare bill that aim Ã¢â¬Å"to provide health care for the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s elderly and health benefits for the poorÃ¢â¬ The Great Society effort federally financed the training for doctors and nurses, establishment of mental heath centers and health facilities focusing on heart problems, cancer and stroke. The Social Security Act of 1965 was passed by Congress to render federal funding for the medical costs of the elderly. This legislation was opposed by the American Medical Association but overcame such opposition to the idea of socialized medicine or public health care and connecting payments with the private health insurance companies. Welfare recipients regardless of age obtained health benefits by the Medicaid program established on July 30, 1965 under Title XIX of the Social Security Act. D. Education LBJ said that he Ã¢â¬Å"no longer can afford second-class education for children who know that they have the right to be first-class citizens. Ã¢â¬ In fulfilling this aim, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 was signed into law on April 1965. The legislation federally funded public schools to help them obtain educational materials and start special education programs to institutions with large number of low-income children. It pursued Head Start, a program initially worked on by the OEO. The Head Start program provided comprehensive aid to the field of education, healthcare, and parent involvement initiatives to low-income children and families. Other programs of LBJ included Ã¢â¬Å"school breakfast programs, Teacher Corps Act of 1965, Adult Education Act of 1968, and the Educational Opportunity Act of 1968. Ã¢â¬ E. Arts One of the significant contributions of the Great Society effort was the promotion of the arts and humanities. LBJ said, Ã¢â¬Å"The happy relationship between the arts and politics which has characterized our long history I think reached culmination tonight. Ã¢â¬ LBJ was successful in formalizing federal aid for public radio and television stations, arts institution and higher education. LBJ signed the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities into law that later on established both the National Endowment for the Arts and National Endowment for the Humanities as separate agencies. He also gave attention on the need for the noncommercial education television in society that paved the way for the enactment of the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967. The law led to the creation of the Public Broadcasting Service and the National Public Radio. National centers and arts facilities also received federal funding during the presidency of LBJ. IV. The Success of LBJ Administration LBJÃ¢â¬â¢s presidency is greatly remembered for the Ã¢â¬Å"Great SocietyÃ¢â¬ programs that aimed to improve the quality of living of Americans. The domestic policies enacted by the Congress during the time of LBJ played significant roles in the lives of Americans who were caught up with the loss of Kennedy, violence and economic ills. LBJ gave light to his people by promising them better and healthy living. One of main goals of the Great Society was to eliminate poverty. LBJ showed determination in reaching the promised land of Great Society by urging Americans to rebuild their cities, eliminate urban decay, and attain a renewed sense of community. In order to help his people, LBJ established a list of laws which promoted racial equality, qquaality education, healthcare, and lowered poverty rate. Many of LBJÃ¢â¬â¢s programs Ã¢â¬Å"made great strides in improving the lives of ordinary Americans. Ã¢â¬ Some of the laws created impact on the political direction of the nation. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 gave voice to African Americans while the Civil Rights Act of 1964 freed African Americans from violence, racial prejudice and social inequality. The result of the war on poverty was promising enough as the poverty rate of the nation dwindled from Ã¢â¬Å"22. 4 percent in the late 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s to 11. 1 percent in 1973. Ã¢â¬ Antipoverty programs of LBJ created millions of jobs, increase in salary and wages and in business profits, and decrease in unemployment rate. Promising results were also seen in the field of education and healthcare as federal funding continued to help citizens exploit what the administration had to offer. Medicare and Medicaid were made to render medical insurance for the elderly and to the poor people. Funding for heathcare benefits continued while the availability of Medicare and Medicaid widened. Support for the arts and culture was also evident. V. The Failure of LBJ Administration Unfortunately, Ã¢â¬Å"LBJ had promised the impoverished much more than he could deliver. Ã¢â¬ There were many citizens whocame to realize that the administration had just an Ã¢â¬Å"overly optimistic prediction that did not come true. Ã¢â¬ Resulting from disappointment were black power and violence in the streets which showed the anguish of the nation. African Americans started to lose faith in LBJ and began to demand immediate change. The backlash of LBJÃ¢â¬â¢s antisegregation efforts began to incite arguments within the southerners while the American people urged the government not to gift black rioters with federal programs. The anger over the desegragation policy of LBJ weakened the Democratic Party and LBJÃ¢â¬â¢s base of power. LBJÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy dilemmas stirred antiwar protests along with civil unrest. Demonstrations concerning the involvement of the United States in Vietnam began to undercut LBJÃ¢â¬â¢s presidency. The people complained that the involvement of the nation in the Vietnam war Ã¢â¬Å"took money and attention away from the needed domestic programs. Ã¢â¬ The people accused Lbj of turning the Vietnam war into national obsession making his War on Poverty nothing more like a skirmish. The presidency of LBJ was equally defined by his Great Society programs and the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s entanglement in the Vietnam war. Problems in the foreign policies of Lbj started from the cold war between the US and the Soviet Union. The conflict was that the Soviet Union and Korea were supporting the commkunist forces in northern Vietnam while the United States was in support of the South Vietnam government. Despite complaints, LBJ pushed through with the Vietnam War fearing that losing South Vietnam would wreak havoc on his political career. VI. Conclusion The administration of LBJ was defined by the successes and failures of foreign and domestic policies. During his stay at the White House, he pursued KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s civil rights bill and tax cuts. He promised to promote better living for the Americans though his Great Society programs. But as he was doing well in putting America in the promised land of a Great Society, Vietnma War was intensifying. Later on, antiwar protests and civil violence gained momentum as American casualties increased in Vietnam. It was evident that LBJ could care less about hearing his people and his presidency was all about between him, his instincts, and his advisers. The failure of his foreign policy in the Vietnam war became the measurement of his entire political career. The dilemma was that LBJ considered the Vietnam War as an inherited course instead of treating it as his job as an influential leader. It could be observed that LBJ was an indecisive leader with no firm stance on foreign policies. To make matter worst, the indecisive president was surrounded with political advisers who were not united and binded with the same aim. It was in the topic of Vietnam War that he was not able to fully utilize his Ã¢â¬Å"Johnson TreatmentÃ¢â¬ to the advantage of American people. Even though the issue in Vietnam War dominated the entire career of LBJ, it was good to know that his Great Society programs were successful. Such programs were only overshadowed by the riots and violence and the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s demand for more than what LBJ could give. The Vietnam War was just one of the flaws of the Great Society programs since the domestic policies were connected with the foreign ones. The Great Society programs produced favorable results while their negative impact to the world came from the opposition that was not supportive of LBJÃ¢â¬â¢s presidency. BIBLIOGRAPHY Brands, H. W. The Foreign Policies of Lyndon Johnson: Beyond Vietnam. Texas: A&M University Press, 1999. Dallek, Robert. Lyndon B. Johnson: Portrait of a President. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Gold, Susan Dudley. Presidents and Their Times: Lyndon B. Johnson. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2009. Savage, Sean J. JFK, LBJ, and the Democratic Party. New York: State University of New York, 2004. Schwartz, Thomas Alan. Lyndon Johnson and Europe: In the Shadow of Vietnam. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2003.